GLOSSARY OF TERMS "A"- An Indian Art.

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS- An Indian Art.

abhiman – Arrogance, considered the major obstacle in ones learning process.
abhinandan tal – An obscure tal of 20 beats.
abhiram tal – An obscure tal of 24 beats.
abhog – A quaternary theme found in dhrupad and other older vocal forms.
achala swar – A note which is immutably fixed (i.e., Sa and Pa).
ada pech tal – An obscure tal of nine beats.
adachartal – See adachautal.
adachautal – A common 14 beat tal.
addha tal – A tal of 16 beats.
adi lay – In a four unit time, one plays six units per beat. (i.e., 3/4 time, 1 1/2 time, or tisra jati).
adi tal – A south Indian tal of eight beats, similar to both tintal and kaherava.
ajay tal – An unusual tal of 6 3/4 beats.
Ajrada – A village near Meerat.
ajrada baj – A style of playing originating from Ajrada.
akal – (Lit. “without time”) a lucknowi gat which ends before the sam.
aksharkal – (Lit. “unit of time required to utter one short letter of the alphabet”.) In ancient times this implied a fundamental unit of measuring rhythm. (4 aksharkal = 1 matra)
alap – A slow rhythmless elaboration upon the rag used by vocalists and instrumentalists.
Amir Khusru – Musician during time of Ala-u-Din Khilji.
anagat (grah) – 1) The process of ending a composition before the sam. 2) An archaic term which means to start the composition before the sam (das pran).
anagat tihai – A tihai which ends before the sam.
andolan – (Lit. “swinging”). An ornament of song or melodic instrument which may be described as a slow shake.
ang – (lit. limb, or section) A measure, or vibhag.
angushtana -A style of tukada or rela which concentrates on the fingers.
anima tal – An obscure tal of 13 beats.
ank tal – A rare tal of nine matras.
antarakrida tal – An obscure tal of seven matras.
antara – A secondary theme in vocal styles.
anudrut – 1) Ultra-high speed (see ati-drut). 2) An archaic unit of time equal to two chaturbhag.
anuvadi – A note of the rag which is neither emphasized or deemphasized.
apsara – A celestial nymph.
ara chartal – See adachautal.
ara choutal – See adachautal.
ardhya tal – An obscure tal of 27 beats.
arjun tal – An obscure pakhawaj tal of 20 beats.
aroh – 1) The ascending structure of the rag. 2) The first half of a lom-vilom gat.
arohana – Ascending structure of rag.
arti – A type of worship which is performed by waving a burning lamp in a circular fashion around the idol.
arya tal – An obscure tal of 16 beats.
aryun tal – An obscure pakhawaj tal of 24 beats.
ashadi jog – Guru purnima.
ashtamangal tal – An obscure pakhawaj tal variously described as being 11 or 22 beats.
ashvini tal – An unusual tal of 11 1/2 beats.
ata – Whole wheat flour which is use as a temporary application to the left side of the pakhawaj.
at tal – An obscure pakhawaj tal variously described as being of 10, 12, 14, 18, 22, and 24 beats.
ath – See at tal.
ati drut – Ultra-fast tempo.
ati vilambit – Ultra slow tempo.
atit (grah) – The process of ending a composition after the sam.
atit tihai – A tihai which ends after the sam.
audhav jati – A rag composed of five notes.
avanaddh – A membranous percussive instrument (e.g., tabla, dholak, mridang, etc.)
avap – (Archaic) A style of timekeeping that does not make sound (marg nishabd kriya).
avaroh – 1) The descending structure of a rag. 2) The second half of a lom-vilom gat.
avarohana – Descending structure of rag.
avartan – A cycl
e of the tal.

avrutti – See avartan.
azan -The Islamic call to prayer.

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