GLOSSARY OF TERMS- An Indian Art.
sadanand tal – A tal of three beats somewhat similar to dadra.
sadhana – Great perseverance.
sagar tal – An obscure tal of 17 beats.
salvanth tal – An obscure tal of 26 matras, formerly played on pakhawaj.
sam – The first beat of a cycle.
sam grah – 1) The process of ending a composition on the sam. 2) An archaic term indicating that the music starts on sam. One of the das pran of tal.
sama yati – A type of yati characterized by uniform tempo from beginning to end.
samadarshan tal – An obscure tal of 24 beats.
samavadi – The second most important note of a rag.
samaveda – One of the Vedas (religious texts) of the Hindus.
samay – The appropriate time for performance of a rag.
samir tal – An obscure tal of seven beats.
sampurna jati – A rag of seven notes.
sampurna tihai – A tihai at the end of a kaida which contains the entire theme.
samyak -(Archaic) A style of timekeeping in marg sashabd kriya, characterized by the striking of the stationary right hand with the left hand.
sanchari – A tertiary theme found in dhrupad and other older vocal forms.
sangati – Accompaniment.
sangavikram tal – An obscure tal of 64 beats.
sangeet or – Music and dance.
sangeet ratnakar – An ancient text on music.
sanghalila tal – An obscure tal of 14 beats.
sankirna jati – A rhythm of 4 1/2, 9, 18, etc. beats.
sankirna tihai – A tihai at the end of a kaida which contains only a portion of the theme.
sannipat – (Archaic) A style of timekeeping in the marg sashabd kriya characterized by the movement of both hands.
santoor – See santur.
santur – An Indian hammered dulcimer.
saptak – The register or octave.
sar tal – An obscure tal ofeight beats.
sarangi – A fretless bowed instrument with numerous strings.
Saraswati – Hindu goddess of music, arts, and learning.
saraswati tal – An obscure tal of 18 beats.
saraswati vina – The common south Indian vina.
sargam – The gamut. (i.e,. Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, and Ni).
Saringda – A Folk version of sarangi found in Rajastan.
sarod – A stringed instrument similar to rabab.
saroj tal – An obscure tal of 12 beats.
sarpini – (Archaic) A style of silent timekeeping (deshi nishabd kriya).
sashabd kriya – Timekeeping that makes noise (e.g., clapping of hands).
satgun – Division of matra into seven divisions.
sath – A class of compositions found in the pakhawaj styles.
sath sangat – A style of playing where beat-for-beat the tabla follows the main artist.
savai – see sawai.
savari badi tal – See badi savari.
savari choti tal
– Choti savari, see pancham savari.
savari pancham tal – See pancham savari.
savari tal – An obscure tal variously described as 14, 15, 16, 30, or 32 beats. See also badi savari or choti savari.
sawai – 11/4 time. (i.e., playing five strokes in four beats.) See kuadi.
shabad – A religious song of the Sikhs.
shadav – A rag composed six notes.
shadj – The first note of the Indian scale (Sa).
shadtal – An obscure tal of 12 beats.
shagird – A student or disciple.
shai – Vernacular of syahi. See syahi.
shakti – Energy, force, power.
shakti tal – An obscure tal of 10 beats.
shambhu tal – An obscure tal of 16 beats.
shankar tal – An obscure tal of 11 beats.
shankh – A conch shell horn.
shankh tal – An obscure tal of 10 or 13 beats.
shanmukh tal – An obscure tal of 10 beats.
sharabhakrida tal – An obscure tal of 19 beats.
sharabhalila tal – An obscure tal of 21 beats.
Sharangdev – Author of Sangeet Ratnakar.
sharajanma tal – An obscure tal of 15 beats.
shastriya sangeet – Classical music.
shavarni tal – An obscure tal of seven beats.
shehnai – An Indian oboe.
shesh tal – An obscure tal of 19 beats.
shikhir tal – An obscure tal of 17 beats.
shikhiravahan tal – An obscure tal of 12 beats.
shishya – A student, or disciple.
shisham – Indian rosewood (Dalbergia sisu).
shobhadham tal – An obscure tal of 22 beats.
shravannil tal – An obscure tal of 21 beats.
shruti tal – An obscure tal of 22 beats.
shuddha – (Lit. “pure”) Basic, primary.
shuddha jati – One of the seven modes which may be derived by simple modulation.
shuddha swar – A natural note.
shultal – See sulfak tal.
sidha – The small wooden right hand drum.
singhnad tal – An obscure tal of 40 beats.
sir tal – An obscure tal of six beats.
sitar – A common long necked fretted instrument.
sitarkhani – A 16 beat tal which is the same as Punjabi theka.
sool tal – See sulfak tal.
soolfak tal – See sulfak tal.
srotagata yati – This yati is said to flow like a stream. It begins slow and gradually increases to a fast conclusion.
sthai – The primary theme of a classical vocal piece.
stuti – (Lit. “prayer, praise of God”) See bol paran.
sudarshan tal – An obscure tal of 10 or 20 beats.
sul tal – See sulfak tal.
sulfak tal – An old pakhawaj tal of 10 beats.
sur – 1) A note(See swar.). 2) The pitch of the tabla. 3) The maidan.
surbahar – A bass sitar.
Surdas – A great saint who composed many bhajans.
surmandal – A small harp used to accompany vocalists.
sushir – A musical instrument characterized by blowing air (flute, shehnai, harmonium, etc.)
swar – A musical note.
swarlipi – Musical notation.
swarmalika – A style of singing where the vocalist sings the sargam of the song.
swarup – (Lit. “shape” or “form”) See pakad.
syahi – The black application on the heads of the tabla.