Development of Ayurvedic Pharmacy from Vedas to Samhita Text


Development of Ayurvedic Pharmacy from Vedas to Samhita Text

All these kalpanas found in the text from Charka Samhita up to Bhaishajya Ratnavali can be classified into two groups; they are –

  • Kalpanas from Charka Samhita to Ashtaang Sangraha, and
  • Kalpanas as in Chukradutta, Sharangdhar Samhita and Bhaishjya Ratnavali.

The first group has the largest number of kalpanas as compared to the second group because many of these kalpanas were compiled and some diet preparations were eliminated. The kalpanas found in the second group are refined version of those found in the first group and a specific difference between the diet preparations and medicinal preparations is seen for the first time in Chukradutta poop, pooipka, navaneet, mastu are not added while as herb and mineral combinations preparations like parpati kalpana are included.
Chukradutta is the text written in the transition period of as by side the dravya guna vigyana (study of herbs) was flourishing and major variety of diet preparations later added to that. The textbook Bhavaprakash written during this time is the first authentic sources of dravya guna vigyana in . Later on we find it that Sharangdhar Samhita the system of mineral processing i.e. parad (mercury) gandhak (sulphor) was developing and for the first time in the history of medicine the inject-able drugs or medicine Suchika bharan Rasa was prepared.

Than after 4 centuries in the 18 th century the Bhaishajya Ratnavali and Rastarangini are the two major texts of Bhaishjya Kalpana are found. These two consist of the most refined versions of kalpanas from samhitas. The modern ayurvedic pharmacy is based on all these ayurvedic text.
The kalpanas found in ayurveda can be classified as

  • Diet preparations
  • Medicinal preparations.

The first group can again be subdivided into-
Animal based and vegetable based.
Animal based group

  • Maans,
  • Maansara,
  • Veshvaar,
  • Shulya maans,
  • Pratptamaans,
  • Chatakandarasa,
  • Chhagrakta paan…

And more are the animal preparations.
Vegetable based group has many preparations. Some examples are.

  • Raaga,
  • Raaga shadava,
  • Kamblika,
  • Takra,
  • Yavagu,
  • Madhu,
  • Navaneet,
  • Vatyamanda,
  • Mand….

And more are the vegetable preparations.
Likewise the medicinal preparations can be subdivided into to
1-Medical procedures, and

The procedures included in the kalpana are internal and external
Internal like

  • Basti
  • Dhroomapaan,
  • Ashyochatanam,
  • Karnapoornam,
  • Yonipoornam, and

External preparations

  • Lepa
  • Praseka
  • Parisheka
  • Sneha
  • Prayaooga,
  • Swedanam,
  • Avagahanam,
  • Pichu

The medicinal preparations can also be subdivided into two types herbal and mineral apart from this the combination. Of the two is also a kind of preparation.
Herbal Group-

  • Ksheerpaak,
  • Kaval,
  • Madhya
  • Swarasa, and more…
  • Mineral Group –
  • Mandoor
  • Bhasma,
  • Parpati,
  • Parad,

Mixed Group –

  • Amritikaran
  • Vatis

Most of all the ayurvedic preparations are mixed now a day.


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